Monday, February 6, 2017


What is Banana Fruit?. The Banana (Musa paradisiaca) are the tropical fruit grown in Malaysia from species Musaceae. It is native to tropical Southeast Asia and locally known as "PISANG". There about 30,320 hectare og banana grown in 2016 producing 321,810 meric tonnes of fresh banana fruit (Source: Crop Statistic Rerpor,t Depertment of Agiculture, Malaysia 2016). Depending to varieties and ripeness, banana flesh taste vary from starchy to sweet. The young banana skin is greenish with starchy taste and mostly the mature in yellowish color. The flesh color varied from white to yellow in color . While unripe, is firm, gummy with latex and turn to soft, dry when ripe. Yellow bananas taste sweeter due to higher sugar concentrations. Bananas can be eaten raw or cooked. This fruit available all the period in Malaysia. There are more than 16 banana varieties registered in Plant Variety Registration Syatem with Departments of Malaysia (Click here for more information). Below are some varieties that found and registered in Malaysia for further information.

Banana Fruit Varieties has differebt names in different location. For example Pisang Nangka are also calles as Pisang Sematu in Pahang. Malaysia Banana varieties in Malaysia are as Pisang Berangan, Pisang Mas, Pisang Cavendish, Pisang Rastali, Pisang Tanduk, Pisang Raja, Pisang Nipah, Pisang Awak, Pisang Lemak Manis and few others.

1. Pisang Berangan :
Pisang Berangan is the most popular banana grown and consume fresh in Malaysia. The Cluster weight between 12 to 20kg with 8 to 12 comb bananas. Each comb may contained 12 to 20 bananas with 12 to 18cm long banana fruit and skin thickness 2.5 to 3.5mm. Oren yellowish flesh fragrant with sweet taste and dry. Normally eaten raw. I do like to eat pisang berangan due to the quality, reasonable price and tasty.

2. Pisang Mas or Pisang Emas:

Cluster weight between 8 to 12kg with 5 to 9 comb bananas. Each comb consist of 14 to 18 bananas with 8 to 12 cm long banana fruit. Golden yellowish flesh is sweeter. Normally pisang Mas are eaten raw.

3. Pisang Cavendish:

Pisang Cavendish are the most fresh banana at higher proce sold locally. Cluster weight usually above 20kg with 15 to 25 comb bananas. The bananas long 15 to 22cm banana fruit. White flesh, soften and sweet fruit.

4. Pisang Rastali:

Cluster weight between 10 to 15kg with 5 to 9 comb bananas. Each comb consist of 12 to 16 bananas with 10 to 15cm long banana fruit. White flesh, soft with sweet sour flavor. Normally eaten raw.

5. Pisang Tanduk:

Pisang tanduk are similar as "Horn Banana". The cluster weight between 7 to 10kg with 2 comb bananas. Each comb consist of 7 to 10 bananas. Orange flesh and sweet taste. Normally use to fried and eat raw.

6. Pisang Raja:

Pisang Raja means "King Banana". The cluster weight between 10 to 15 kg with 6 to 9 comb bananas. Each comb consist of 12 to 16 bananas with 15cm long banana fruit. Orange flesh . Normally eaten raw or fried banana.

7. Pisang Nipah:

The cluster weight 15 to 28 kg with 12 to 18 comb bananas. Each comb consist of 12 to 20 bananas with 10 to 15 cm long banana fruit. White flesh ,sweet and soft. Only eaten after fried.

8. Pisang Nangka:

Nangka means 'Jackfruit' in Bahasa Malaysia. The cluster weight between 12 to 14 kg with 6 to 8 comb bananas. Each comb consist of 14 to 24 bananas. White flesh and lithe sour flavor. Normally eaten fried banana.

9. Pisang Awak:

Awak measn 'you' in Bahasa Malaysia. The cluster weight between 18 to 22 kg with 8 to 12 comb bananas. Each comb consist of 10 to 16 bananas with 10 to 15cm long banana but mostly are fried with special flour flovour. White flesh and sticky. Normally eaten raw . The flesh sometimes has a black small seed inside.

Banana Fruit sare grown in small scale as backyard farming or commercially grown in large area. The banana tree can grow under very poor condition but with low productivity. It is grow well in well drained soil, clay sandy and rocky sand. It is a tropical plant suitable temperature between 24 to 27 degree Celsius and mean rainfall around 10 cm per month. The skin of banana turns from deep green to yellow color. The tree can height until 8 meters. The elliptic fleshy stalked leaves In Malaysia, it planted huge in state Pahang and Perak. Malaysia exports banana to Singapore, Brunei, Hong Kong, Japan and other related countries. Thanks.

M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Banana Experimental Station,
Lekir, Perak,
(January 2017)


Saturday, January 28, 2017


DENGUE FEVER is a problem that just does not seem to want to go away in Malaysia where hundreds of cases are reported daily. And even worse, it seems to be escalating. As of 16 April 2015, the total case count of people suffering from dengue fever stands at 36,611 patient with Selangor state reporting the most cases at 21,471. In addition,the total number of dengue fever fatality this year is 113 patient.
For comparison, this infographic shows the number of dengue cases and deaths in Malaysia from the year 2013 to October 2014. While every year hundreds die from dengue in Malaysia alone, there's still no vaccine or medicine that can help prevent dengue. All you can do to protect yourself is to prevent mosquito bites. But what if you could not prevent yourself from being bitten by a mosquito and fall sick? What then? Can papaya leaf juice help you in recovering from dengue fever?. According to this article, dated 11 December 2014, on Channel NewsAsia, "Malaysians have taken to consuming all sorts of traditional remedies to help cure dengue fever. One such remedy involves the juice of papaya leaves. The article cites Vaidya C D Siby, Chief Ayurvedic Physician at the Ayur Centre, saying that "(the juice of papaya leaves) has an antiviral capacity to improve the metabolism and it improves the liver function and that's how the liver function improves. The metabolism improves so the platelet level improves, that's how it happens." This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" the writer want to share basic info regarding the use of papaya components as part of curing dengur fever.

An article dated 1 October 2014, on The Sun Daily, tells Malaysians to not get excited over papaya juice extract as a treatment for dengue. Citing renowned Australia scientist Scott O'Neill, the article says that "until there is some clinical data or scientific research to check on the efficacy of papaya leaf extract to treat dengue, it will only be considered as hearsay." O'Neill told The Sun Daily that regardless of the claim, it was still of utmost priority to have scientific evidence to back these claims. "This is because there are many different remedies out there which people had said were able to treat different diseases but not every remedy is suitable or have high success rates in treating a disease. Hence, by having these scientific evidence it will then allow us to know to what extent the remedy works," he added. He further pointed out that as far as he knows about papaya leaf extract, there has not been any major clinical studies conducted to determine its success rate in treating dengue. However, O'Neill does not reject the point that papaya leaf extract might actually be able to treat dengue but he urged everyone to be cautious.

According to a private medical practitioner, Dr. Hu Chang Hock, you should be careful when resorting to alternative treatment for dengue such as taking papaya leaf juice. The private practitioner said not enough studies had been done to prove its effectiveness. Dr. Hu, who has a Master's Degree in Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine, said: "Don't depend on inconclusive results. Papaya leaves contain alkaloids, which is known to be toxic and they include a compound known to have direct effect on our hearts. People feeling unwell should seek medical attention immediately. Get proper medical advice including getting blood tests done and consuming enough fluids. This is because leakage of plasma can result in a drop in blood pressure and shock, if untreated," he advised when asked to comment on claims that certain people were seeking alternative treatment for the disease.

Another doctor, Dr. Nupur Krishnan, a clinical nutritionist from Kemps Corner, an upmarket neighbourhood in South Mumbai, India, said that people should take such claims (that the juice of papaya leaves can immediately boost platelet count in the body and is a miracle cure for dengue fever) with a pinch of salt. In this article, dated 27 October 2012, the Indian doctor said that even if papaya leaves have nutrients capable of increasing platelet count, the human body might not be capable of absorbing such nutrients. "People often think that eating leafy vegetables such as spinach and fenugreek will increase haemoglobin levels in blood. But certain acids present in such foods prevents the body from absorbing them. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that the extract of raw papaya leaf helps to boost platelets, also known as thrombocytes, and relieves symptoms. A number of recent studies, too, have shown the effect of papaya leaf juice in curing the dengue fever.

A 2009 study, done on mice in Malaysia, reported significant improvement in thrombocyte count in the group which received papaya leaf formulations compared to the control group. A 2012 study, done on five dengue patients by Indian Institute of Forest Management, found interesting observations. Among the five patients, papaya leaf juice was found to be effective in curing dengue. The platelet count increased in all five patients within 24 hours of drinking the papaya leaf juice. All of them reported significant improvement in health. A 2013 study, done on 288 dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever patients in Malaysia, found that Carica papaya leaf extract can assist in increasing platelets in patients with dengue fever. The study was led by Dr. Soobitha Subenthran and team from the Institute for Medical Research (IMR) in Kuala Lumpur. According to this article, dated 17 August 2014, Prof. Dr. Saringat Haji Baie from the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang also strongly supported IMR’s findings. "It is not merely a traditional belief, but a proven cure as I have tried it on my own son when he fell victim to dengue recently. Many people are taking it and although not scientifically proven, it works," said the professor. That's all folks. Thanks...

M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Papaya Farms, Chenor, Maran,
Pahang, Malaysia.
(Febuary 2017)

Friday, January 27, 2017


Agricultural Engineer's Work related to the profession whereby the Agricultural engineers must have a wealth of knowledge and skills to function effectively in the multiplicity of the agricultural and agribusiness industries. In Malaysia the agricultural engineer helps to make farming sustainable, safe, and environmentally friendly especially on large scale oil palm and rubber plantation also for small scale farmers involved with food production such as paddy production and vegetables. They involved seriously in ensuring the water for grainary area able to grow paddy according to the needs. They analyze agricultural operations and weigh the use of new technologies and methods to increase yields, improve land use, and conserve resources like seed, water, fertilizers, pesticides and fuel. The engineer recommends strategies to protect the health, safety and security of worker's, animals and agricultural products. Agricultural engineers develop methods and design equipment for land preparation, planting and harvesting. They incorporate automation, precision and smart technologies "intelligence" to new and existing equipment. Sensors (including biosensors) are combined with microcomputers, controllers, artificial intelligence and other software, to optimize efficiency, sustainability, and the reliability of our food, feed, fiber and fuel economy. This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" explain about agriculture engineering profession.

Agriculture engineers find better ways to reduce crop loss from field damage, during handling, sorting, packing and processing. The warehousing of food and fiber are an important part of the agriculture industry. The agricultural engineer is the person who plans the heating, cooling, ventilation, postharvest handling, logistics and more. Specific examples of Agricultural engineering work include the agricultural power units, harvesters, material handling, implements' and Agricultural production facilities. They also involved ini environmental controls for poultry, swine, beef, aquaculture, plants, and involve ini the precision agriculture utilizing GPS, yields monitors, remote sensing and variable-rate technology. Agriculture engineering scope include the activity related to the worker safety, comfort, and efficiency including the control of vibration, noise, air quality, heating, cooling. It include also the sales, service, training, planning, management, market and product research related to implementing and applying technologies.

Where do agricultural engineers work?. Normally the agricultural engineer can be found working with industries associated with agriculture such as equipment companies, seed manufacturers and food companies or distributors. Some agricultural engineers like to work directly with farmers and agricultural technicians to solve issues with crop, land and livestock. Large farm operations may consult or hire agricultural engineers to resolve management and technical issues. A good number of engineers work for government agencies that oversee agricultural entities. The agricultural engineer has plenty to do as increasing biological discoveries are adopted to farming practices like on-farm energy production. New uses for agricultural waste are becoming evident and crops are yielding not only food but new byproducts. The continuing cost of agricultural operations and our increasing populations mean career opportunities for agricultural engineers should always be in demand. Thanks for visiting this article. Wasallam!!!.

M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Agicultultural Engineering Faculty,
UPM, Serdang, Malaysia.
(January 2017)

Thursday, November 24, 2016


What is Pineapple Fruit
The pineapple scientific name Ananas comosus L. Merill from spesies Bromeliaceae. It believed native to Southern American. The aromatic yellow juicy flesh taste between sweet sour ,sweet or salt depend to it varieties. The young fruit rind color is green and change to purple or brownish. The pineapple is in oval to cylindrical shaped. The pineapple sizes can long up to 12 inches and weight unti 12pound and more. Malaysia is one of the pieapple producing countries for domestic and exports market. State like Johore, Pahang and Kedah are the most producing fresh pineapple. There are few factory producing canned pineapple in Johor. Pineapple arw grown in peat soil area and only small percent grown on mineral soils.

Pineapple Varieties grown in Malaysia.
There are few varieties in Malaysia grown by smallholders and estate operators . The varieties are:
1.Gandol - Fresh and canning
2.N36 - For canning
3.Mauritius - For fresh
4.Josaphine - Hybrid for fresh
5.Sarawak - For fresh
6. MD2 - for fresh export
How Pineapple Tree look?.
The pineapple plant can grow up to 1.5 meters. The green leaves may stripe with red and yellow on the margin. The leaves might long 50 to 180cm and spine in the margin. While it is blooming, the red or purple color flowers was elongate, the plan need 115 days to 130 days to bear a fruit after blooming of flowers. The pineapple plant suitable live at well drained organic sandy loam with temperature 28 degree Celsius to 35 degree Celsius. Normally, the pineapple plant long live for around 4 years. In Malaysia, states planted huge is Pahang, Johor, Selangor, Kelantan, Kedah and Pulau Pinang. The pinepple are about one to 1.5 years one cycle before replanting.

Pineapple Product and Recipe
Rather thn fresh consumption, pineapple in Malaysia are processed for high end value. The sweet sour flavor of pineapple had manufactured into :
1.Jam pineapple
2.Jelly Pineapple
3.Pineapple Pie/cake
4.Pineapple Juice
5.Pineapple Ice cream
6.Pineapple tart

Benefits of Pineapple Fruit

Pineapple is one of favorite fruits in worldwide. Besides of it juicy ripe pineapple sweet sour flavor, the fruit had many health benefits of pineapple. Body can easily absorbs nutrients by eating fresh, canned or pineapple juice. Below is the nutrients in the fruit:

Nutritional Value per 100 grams

Energy 45.0 kcal 
Water 87.8 g
Protein 0.5 g
Fat 0.1 g
Fiber 10.6 g 
Abu 0.6 g 
Calcium 0.4 mg 
Phosphorus 24.0 mg
Iron 6.0 mg 
Natrium 1.4 mg 
Kalium 31.0 mg 
Beta Carotene 40.0 mg 
Vitamin B1 270.0 mg 
Vitamin B2 0.17 mg
Niacin 0.1 mg 
Vitamin C 15.2 mg

Pineapple in Malaysia are choosed bya commersial farmers ti expand in Pahang States. About 1,000 hectares area in Rompin District are planted with MD2 varieites for domestic and export.  The project initiated by MPIB (Malaysia Pineapple Industry Board) and funded by ECER able to produce gigh quality pineapple fruits.
M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Kuantan, Pahang,
(24 Nov 2016)


Samsolbari says Sarawak recorded the largest pineapple plantation areas after Johor with 1,805ha currently.
Samsolbari says Sarawak recorded the largest pineapple plantation areas after Johor with 1,805ha currently.
KOTA SAMARAHAN: Malaysia recorded pineapple exports valued at RM161mil last year and targets to increase this to RM254mil by 2020.

Malaysian Pineapple Industry Board (MPIB) chairman Datuk Samsolbari Jamali said to achieve the goal, the Government had planned to increase the pineapple plantation acreage by 7,120ha by 2020.

“The plan to increase the country’s pineapple production is to meet market demand and high-value agricultural development.

“The pineapple industry plays an important role in meeting the growing demand for fresh fruits and agro-based industry.

“Hence, developing and strengthening pineapple cultivation in Sarawak is necessary to assist in accommodating the market demand globally with the addition of 100 containers per month,” he said.

He said this in his speech at the launch of Sarawak Pineapple Plantation Census officiated by Deputy Chief Minister Datuk Amar Douglas Uggah Embas in Kota Samarahan on Monday.

A total of 719 pineapple entrepreneurs in the state are involved in the census beginning Monday until Sept 30.

Samsolbari said Sarawak recorded the largest pineapple plantation areas after Johor with 1,805ha currently.

“MPIB targets a higher increase in productivity by 2020, that is, at 45 tonnes per ha with the optimisation of land use,” he said.

Meanwhile, Uggah who is also state Minister for Modernisation of Agriculture and Rural Economy, in his speech outlined four main requirements to empower the pineapple industry in Sarawak.

“These are quality seedlings, research as well as technology transfer to the state, creating downstream industries and good marketing system.

“As the second largest pineapple producer, we strongly encourage MPIB to assist Sarawak in this endeavour,” he said. - Bernama

Tuesday, November 22, 2016


Mohd Norsazwan bin Ghazali*,

 Associate Prof. Dr Adam Puteh, Prof Dr. Mohd Rafii Yusop,
Department of Crop Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia 
*Email :

Oil palm seeds require more than six months to germinate under natural condition. In the first experiment, different method to evaluate dormancy type were conducted on T × T and D × P seeds. This includes physical, morphological and physiological dormancy tests. Results indicated that the seeds were unable to imbibe water, regardless of scarification treatments. This suggests that oil palm seeds exhibit physical dormancy characteristics. Morphological tests on seeds at room temperature indicated that an embryo length of 3.64 or 3.03 mm was required to initiate germination in T × T and D × P seeds, respectively. The applications of heat treatments (40°C) were able to accelerate embryo growth, regardless of treatment duration. On the other hand, application of exogenous GA 3 did not significantly increase germination during physiological dormancy test. The results strongly indicate that oil palm seed exhibits combination of physical, morphological and physiological dormancy type. In the second experiment, alternative techniques to break oil palm seed dormancy were evaluated including adoption of higher temperature treatment (50°C), alternating temperature regimes of high (40°C) and low (7°C) for different duration; as well as combining alternating temperature regimes of high (40°C) and low (7°C) temperatures with growth hormone (gibberellic acid) during germination period. The seeds were then allowed to germinate for 60 days. Parameters evaluated include percentage of normal pre-germinated seeds, percentage abnormalities, percentage of diseased seeds and Coefficient Velocity of Germination. The results indicated that adoption of alternating temperature along with exogenous GA3 application during germination were able to result in similar percentage of normal pre-germinated seeds as the commercially practiced method, with acceptable percentage abnormalities and diseases occurrence level. . This study strongly suggests that there are alternative techniques that can be adopted to break oil.

Posted by:
M Anem
NSAM Members
Hotel Sama-sama, KLIA,
Sepang, Selangot,

Saturday, September 24, 2016


Lim Kiang Ping
Green World Genetics Sdn. Bhd.
Email :

Agriculture industry is important to a country; through the development of the seed industry the agriculture industry can be enhance in order to achieve food security and self-sufficiency. As the anchor company appointed under EPP 14, Green World Genetics Sdn. Bhd. (GWG) has taken actions to overcome some of these challenges and help to build a better seed industry in Malaysia. Malaysia has an estimated population of 31 million people and a seed industry worth roughly RM 50-60 million. More than 95% of the seeds used by local growers are imported. Hence there is a need to breed and also strengthen the local seed production system.Breeding is a tedious process and it takes years to develop a new variety. GWG has currently embarked into breeding varieties for local needs. To achieve this, 5 plant breeders, more than 30 seed producers, 20 agronomists and 7 technical sales persons have been deployed. Resources such as land, funds, germplasm etc., are important for the breeding program. GWG has established strategic partnership and linkages with both governmental institutions and private sectors. Policy and regulation is another important issue for the seed industry. Policy is the direction set by the government to develop the industry whereas regulation refers to the rules that govern seed industry. The food supply chain is a vital element in enhancing the seed industry. The supply chain in Malaysia is made up of seed distributor/dealer, growers, packer/processor, trader, retailer and consumer. The direction for seed breeding should be based on the requirements on each component in order to benefit and harmonize the entire supply chain. To date, despite being involved in agriculture for a very long time, the Malaysian seed industry particularly in the vegetables sub-sector is considered very young. GWG, as the anchor company shoulder the responsibility of not only producing high quality seeds but also to foresee future challenges and advise the policy makers to lead our seed industry into a more prosperous era and increase the country’s GDP. 
Keywords: Green World Genetics, seed industry, food supply chain.

Posted by:
M Anem,

Senior Agronomist (NSAM Members)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
(24 August 2016)