JOM SOKONG BLOG

KLIK SAYA...

Wednesday, March 21, 2018

FUTURE AGRICULTURE IN MALAYSIA (Part 2)

Malaysia has been very successful in developing the country through organized and focused economic development plans. Globally, Malaysia has been ranked sixth in 2014 on Ease of Doing Business, 20th in the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) 2014- 2015, 33rd in the Global Innovation Index (GII) 2014 and 56th in the World Happiness Index (2013). These indicators have proven that Malaysia is capable to promote a new orientation of development focusing towards sustainability and inclusiveness. The development of a nation relies on its citizen’s wellbeing. One of the important factors of citizen’s wellbeing is food production. Food is the backbone of the society. Realising this, the Malaysian government has taken steps to ensure that there is enough food for its population. The emphasis is on self-sustainability. The agro-ecosystem management and agricultural planning has been revamped to ensure sustainability and to include green-friendly values and equitable and inclusiveness of all stake holders. Sustainable development must be inclusive enough to cater and address the population’s wider needs for food, feed, fuel, fibre, furniture, pharmaceuticals and felicity. Constraints such as high implementation cost, and pressing health and environmental concerns require governments to plan their agriculture development towards being trim, mean, focused, not wasteful, savvy, and compliant to the global environmental and health standards. Agro-ecosystem Management Challenges is a factor to be discussed. Malaysia is blessed with fertile soil and abundance of rain since it is located on the world tropical belt. However, to meet the agriculture development objectives Malaysia has to face and overcome social, economic and environmental challenges. This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" I would like to share some basic information with all readers. 


National Priorities on Agro-ecosystem Management
Agriculture has been identified as one of the sectors that can contribute towards Malaysia’s development. Several initiatives to reflect to the importance of sustainable agro-ecosystem management have been included in major national programmes.

Global Science & Innovation Advisory Council (GSIAC)
GSIAC is a strategic platform that aims to bridge the gap between local and international players. One of the GSIAC initiatives is to help Asian countries achieve an environmentally-sustainable high-income economy driven by knowledge and innovation. Malaysia is using this initiative to develop its agriculture sector by focusing on high-technology; market expansion and good agriculture practices which has been identified as the three important thrusts in the effort to transform agriculture into a source of high income for the nation.

National Science and Research Council (NSRC):
 
NSRC is mandated to ensure Malaysia’s investment in science and technology makes the greatest possible contribution to a high-value economy through an increase in productivity, environmental quality, stimulation in R&D and enhancement of skills of the workforce. One of the main focus areas in NSRC is agriculture sciences. NSRC has tabled fifteen top national food security research priorities clustered around four themes as suggested in Global Food Security: Strategic Plan 2011-2016.

Economic Transformation Programme :
The programme aims to transform the industry from small-scaled production-based operations into large-scale agribusinesses that generate sustainable economic growth. This transformation is based on an integrated and market-centric model that comprises four key themes: capitalizing on competitive advantages, tapping premium markets, aligning food security objectives with increasing GNI, and participating in the regional agricultural value chain. The transformation programmes have identified seventeen projects that cover from dietary and herbal development to transformation of “Pasar komuniti” (community market) which are believed to give high impact to Malaysia.
By,
M Anem,
Room 1807, Imperial Hertitage Hotel,
Bandar Hilir,
Melaka, Malaysia.
(17 RabiulAwal 1439H)

Friday, March 9, 2018

FUTURE AGRICULTURE IN MALAYSIA (Part 1)

Malaysia has been very successful in developing the country through organized and focused economic development plans. Globally, Malaysia has been ranked sixth in 2014 on Ease of Doing Business, 20th in the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) 2014- 2015, 33rd in the Global Innovation Index (GII) 2014 and 56th in the World Happiness Index (2013). These indicators have proven that Malaysia is capable to promote a new orientation of development focusing towards sustainability and inclusiveness. The development of a nation relies on its citizen’s wellbeing. One of the important factors of citizen’s wellbeing is food production. Food is the backbone of the society. Realising this, the Malaysian government has taken steps to ensure that there is enough food for its population. The emphasis is on self-sustainability. The agro-ecosystem management and agricultural planning has been revamped to ensure sustainability and to include green-friendly values and equitable and inclusiveness of all stake holders. Sustainable development must be inclusive enough to cater and address the population’s wider needs for food, feed, fuel, fibre, furniture, pharmaceuticals and felicity. Constraints such as high implementation cost, and pressing health and environmental concerns require governments to plan their agriculture development towards being trim, mean, focused, not wasteful, savvy, and compliant to the global environmental and health standards. Agro-ecosystem Management Challenges is a factor to be discussed. Malaysia is blessed with fertile soil and abundance of rain since it is located on the world tropical belt. However, to meet the agriculture development objectives Malaysia has to face and overcome social, economic and environmental challenges. This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" I would like to share some basic information with all readers.

(1) Social challenge: 
Malaysia’s population stands at 30,061,121 and is increasing at the rate of 1.8 percent per annum. Increased population increases food demand. Malaysia has not been able to be self-reliance in terms of food supply and still has to depend on import. Current, approximately RM34.5 billion is spent on food import.

(2) Economic challenge :
Malaysia targets to be a high income nation with annual per capita income of RM48,000 by 2020. In 2013, Malaysia’s per capita income is RM33,010. The agriculture sector is seen as one of the major contributors towards achieving this target. The government has allocated RM3 billion annually in an effort to encourage the development of agribusinesses and manage the supply of agricultural commodities, besides creating job opportunities and reduces unemployment which currently stands at 3 percent. The amount allocated includes food subsidy.

(3) Environmental challenge :
Climate change is another challenge that effects agriculture development. Every year Malaysia spends an average of RM3 billion to mitigate natural disaster, particularly flood. In Peninsular Malaysia alone, 29,000 square km of land area has been identified as flood prone, affecting approximately 4.82 million peoples.


Apart from natural disaster, Malaysia is also facing shortage of land for agriculture production. Urbanisation has increased competition for land. Of the total land area of 328,550 square km only 78,700 square km is allocated for agriculture, and only 5.48 percent of which is reserved for plantation development. To be continue in Part 2,3,4 and 5. 
By,
M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Room 1807, Imperial Heritage Hotel,
Bandar Hilir, Melaka,
Malaysia.

(19 RabiulAwal 1439H)

Sunday, March 4, 2018

FUTURE AGRICULTURE IN MALAYSIA (Part 6)

Malaysia has been very successful in developing the country through organized and focused economic development plans. Globally, Malaysia has been ranked sixth in 2014 on Ease of Doing Business, 20th in the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) 2014- 2015, 33rd in the Global Innovation Index (GII) 2014 and 56th in the World Happiness Index (2013). These indicators have proven that Malaysia is capable to promote a new orientation of development focusing towards sustainability and inclusiveness. The development of a nation relies on its citizen’s wellbeing. One of the important factors of citizen’s wellbeing is food production. Food is the backbone of the society. Realising this, the Malaysian government has taken steps to ensure that there is enough food for its population. The emphasis is on self-sustainability. The agro-ecosystem management and agricultural planning has been revamped to ensure sustainability and to include green-friendly values and equitable and inclusiveness of all stake holders. Sustainable development must be inclusive enough to cater and address the population’s wider needs for food, feed, fuel, fibre, furniture, pharmaceuticals and felicity. Constraints such as high implementation cost, and pressing health and environmental concerns require governments to plan their agriculture development towards being trim, mean, focused, not wasteful, savvy, and compliant to the global environmental and health standards. Agro-ecosystem Management Challenges is a factor to be discussed. Malaysia is blessed with fertile soil and abundance of rain since it is located on the world tropical belt. However, to meet the agriculture development objectives Malaysia has to face and overcome social, economic and environmental challenges. This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" I would like to share some basic information with all readers. 

(1) Opportunity in Economy
The World Business Council for Sustainable Development estimates the potential additional sustainability-related business opportunities will generate annual value of USD1.2 trillion from agriculture and food sector by 2050. Youth participation is crucial for the development of the agriculture sector. Opportunity to attract youth should be intensified as current statistic has shown increased interest - 15 percent of 826,000 agripreneurs are youth. The government has to create infrastructure and support system to encourage this development. For example, the establishment of Halal Hub to promote and produce halal food and standardization like MyGAP that helps to bring the agriculture produce into the more lucrative markets. Besides, there are a lot of future opportunities in agriculture across other sectors that could be explored, such as Agriculture cities and integration, and agriculture related industries such as tourism, education and construction.

(2) Technology in Economy
Although agricultural contribution to GDP declined over the years to 7.3 percent in 2010, current trends, technology and new initiative in this sector could provide opportunity for Malaysia’s economy. Opportunities from technology such as energy efficiency, low-emission energy supply, precision farming, and robotics and automation are a few examples to generate economic opportunity to Malaysia.

(a) Energy Efficiency
Energy inputs in agriculture sector are found in every stage of production – from applying chemicals (e.g. pesticides, fertilizers), to fuel tractors that harvest crops, to supplying electricity for animal housing facilities. Inefficiency in using these energy inputs would lead farmers to bear the high energy costs. Inefficiency would also create volatile energy market fluctuations that impact fertilizer costs.

(b) Low-Emission Energy Supply
Technology that helps reduce the impact on environment by shifting energy supply from fossil fuels to less polluting alternatives such as solar, wind, nuclear and hydropower for electricity generation or using biofuel as direct sources of energy.

By,
M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Room 1807, Imperial Heritage Hotel,
Bandar Hilir, Melaka,
Malaysia.
(19 RabiulAwal 1439H)

Monday, February 19, 2018

KANGKONG - THE BENEFIRS AND NUTRITION FACTS


What is KANGKONG?. Kangkong is the Asian-originated name for what in English is known as water spinach, a leafy green water vegetable. Kangkong (Impomea aquatica) is a leafy vegetable grown in Malaysia as a popular local foods. There are various names for kangkong, which is the name common in the Asia-Pacific region. Other names of kangkong are water morning glory, swamp cabbage, river spinach, Chinese spinach and water convolvulus. The scientific name for kangkong is Ipomoea acquatica and the plant is believed to have originated from Asia. Kangkong or water spinach is a soft-stemmed aquatic or semi-aquatic perennial plant found in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The leaves are flat and vary in shape depending on variety, from heart-shaped to long, narrow and arrow-shaped. The two common varieties of kangkong we grow are the one with green stem that bears white flowers and the one with white stem that bears pink flowers. If the leaves are not harvested early and it flowers, it produces seeds, which can be planted. In Papua New Guinea, kangkong naturally grows along riverbanks and in swampy areas and lakes. There is not much work or the maintenance required in growing kangkong. Kangkong grows roots from the stem's nodes when planted so we don’t grow them from the seeds. It does not have any season and grows all year round, thriving where there is plenty of water and moist soil. It is weather-resistant. Kangkong can also be a best vegetable to grow at home, provided that its growing conditions are met. Watch the video below about the best tips on growing your own kangkong at home.

Kangkong or Water Spinach Health Benefits are discussed in this article. Kangkong leaves are very nutritious, being rich in vitamins and minerals. It is naturally rich in dietary fiber, protein, calcium, iron, vitamin A and vitamin C as indicated in the table below. Young water spinach leaves has been and an excellent leafy green vegetable for people with anaemia and pregnant women who need iron in their diets. I have not heard of any harmful effects of kangkong apart from its mild laxative effect when eaten a lot on empty stomach. Because of this laxative effect, kangkong is excellent for people suffering from constipation. Because of its high nutritional value and weather-resistant nature, kangkong or water spinach is a plant that can be grown for food and nutrition for both man and animals. It may be a solution for world hunger and nutrition deficit.




Delicious Asian Kangkong Recipe ar available in Malaysia how to cook kangkong. The mos popular is to cook kangkong with belacan (or known asa shrimp paste). Kangkong is a very popular vegetable in Malaysia and throughout South-East Asia. If you're stay in Asia, don't forget to try a kangkong dish. It's a delicacy! There are many varieties of kangkong dishes. My favourite ones are the simple garlic kangkong and garlic kangkong with chili stir-fried. Raw kangkong preserves most of the nutritional values. The 'baby varieties' of water spinach is nice being eaten raw. Kangkong tastes better when it is not over-cooked. If you want to try cooking kangkong yourself there are few of kangkong recipes. The South-East Asian local delight sambal kangkong is cooked with sambal chilli. There are many varieties of sambal kangkong dishes.

Other Uses of Kangkong important because all parts of the young water spinach plant is edible with the shoot tips and young leaves being the best. Kangkong can be eaten raw or cooked. It is best stir-fried, with the stems being cooked a bit longer than the leaves. The white-stemmed kangkong is more softer and better than the green-stemmed one. The leaves have a pleasant, mild and sweet flavour and has a slippery feel. Apart from human consumption, kangkong leaves and stems also serve as food for the domesticated animals and fish when grown in lakes. More Kangkong Recipes differs from localities. If you want to learn how to cook a delicious Asian kangkong dish, whether it be a simple stir fry kangkong, sambal kangkong or you want to learn how to cook abodong kangkong, there are some links you may wish to check out. Cooking kangkong needs minimal skill. There are no wrong or right way. Once you know the basics, you can improvise. The important thing to note is that kangkong leaves are very soft whilst the stem will need a bit more cooking. Thanks for read this article.

By,
M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Kangkong Farms,
TKPM Pulau Manis,
Kuantan, Pahang,
Malaysia.
(5 April 2017)

Wednesday, February 7, 2018

RED PALM WEEVIL - STATUS IN MALAYSIA


A species of beetle illegally brought in across the Thai-Malaysian border has been ravaging the nation’s palm trees, and - if left unchecked - can potentially decimate the palm oil industry within just 20 years. The Red Palm Weevil, or Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is a species of beetle that excavates holes in the trunk of palm trees, eventually killing the plant. It infests coconut palms (Cocos nucifera), date palms and oil palms. From my engagement to the Department of Agriculture’s (DoA) Plant Biosecurity Division, so far a whopping 465ha of coconut trees are gone, mainly in Terengganu and Kedah. But according to Biosecurity Division Director of DOA, there are more states may attacked by RPW such as Pahang, Kelantan, Johor, Perak and few others. Currently there are 85,799 ha of coconut palms in Malaysia. Additionally, 335 date palms have been eaten. From the reports, writers found out that so far, said that the department head Faridah Aini mentioned that no commercial oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations had been affected, but the weevil’s spread was a major cause for concern. What worries us is that if these beetles do not have access to their main source of food in date palms, they will move to oil palm trees.

There have been reports which are still unconfirmed as yet, but it is a very real concern,” she said, adding that research was currently ongoing in several universities across the country. Research at UKM has shown that even without being forced, the weevil will go to the palm oil fruits and breed inside the tree itself. The red palm weevil first entered the country when seedlings and date palms were illegally brought in across the border with the beetle in the trunks. Under Malaysia’s Plant Quaran­tine Act, the import of any palms except for research purposes is prohibited. So far, the weevil can be found in five states - Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan, Penang and Terengganu - with the latter being the worst-hit. More farmers and local people have been bringing pandan coconut and date palms in for years, but after El Nino recently the weather became more suitable for these palms to flower and fruit, so people wanted to bring it in. However, unknown to most people, the bulk of the date palms smuggled in were ornamental plants that would not fruit. While Malaysia is home to several other species of palm weevil, the one that has recently entered our shores breeds far quicker and so is more dangerous. To control its spread, we must spray cypermethrin (an insecticide) every two weeks until the infestation is dead. We have to do preventive spraying as well, including soil drenching (adding diluted chemicals to the base of plants). The adults are also killed with the use of pheromone traps, which can be used as an early detection method. “If we find beetles in the traps, we know there are probably more,” she said.


The DoA has also met with and briefed the Smuggling Prevention Unit (UPP) of the Border Control Agency to look into the matter. The Biosecurity Division has urged Malaysians to contact the DoA if they notice a possible infestation, or spray insecticide themselves. “The first sign will be a wilting crown - the leaves fall into a skirt-like formation around the tree. They will then start dropping. “Eventually, the whole trunk will be hollowed out and potentially fall, which is also a risk to the public, as some areas use palms as avenue trees to line roads and pathways, and even around mosques. While the beetle had appeared in Malaysia in 2010, the situation had worsened due to an increase in smuggling. “We have approached nurseries and told them to stop selling these smuggled date palms, but people must stop buying from unreliable sources, and report any potential smuggling to the authorities. RPW are the latest pests for palm trees that was monitored seriously in Malaysia especially on the attack ata coconut areas. Thanks.

By,
M Anem,
Senior AGronomist,
Coconut Estates, Rompin,
Pahang, Malaysia.
(Prepared on 4 April 2017)
Posted and reviewed on 7 Feb 2018.

Saturday, February 3, 2018

FUTURE AGRICULTURE IN MALAYSIA (Part 5)

Malaysia has been very successful in developing the country through organized and focused economic development plans. Globally, Malaysia has been ranked sixth in 2014 on Ease of Doing Business, 20th in the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) 2014- 2015, 33rd in the Global Innovation Index (GII) 2014 and 56th in the World Happiness Index (2013). These indicators have proven that Malaysia is capable to promote a new orientation of development focusing towards sustainability and inclusiveness. The development of a nation relies on its citizen’s wellbeing. One of the important factors of citizen’s wellbeing is food production. Food is the backbone of the society. Realising this, the Malaysian government has taken steps to ensure that there is enough food for its population. The emphasis is on self-sustainability. The agro-ecosystem management and agricultural planning has been revamped to ensure sustainability and to include green-friendly values and equitable and inclusiveness of all stake holders. Sustainable development must be inclusive enough to cater and address the population’s wider needs for food, feed, fuel, fibre, furniture, pharmaceuticals and felicity. Constraints such as high implementation cost, and pressing health and environmental concerns require governments to plan their agriculture development towards being trim, mean, focused, not wasteful, savvy, and compliant to the global environmental and health standards.  This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" I would like to share some basic information with all readers.


(1) Economic opportunity

(a) Opportunity in Environment Sustainability
There are high awareness in green agriculture or environmental friendly approach in agriculture activities is the best way to keep the environment clean and sustainable. Adopting green technology in agriculture would create sustainable agriculture practices and promote agro-ecology and sustainable ecosystems. The effort to raise public awareness on sustainability, and public participation in activities such as food health literacy, green life style and waste to wealth, could contribute to achieving environment sustainability.

(b) Technology in Environment Sustainability
The vertical farming as one way of farming is cultivating plant or animal life within a skyscraper greenhouse or on vertically inclined surfaces. Advantages for vertical farming include no weather-related crop failures due to droughts, floods, pests and all vertical farming food are grown organically with no herbicides, pesticides, or fertilizers. Integrated farming and waste management to reduce erosion, increase crop yields, nutrient recycling, strengthen environmental sustainability. An integrated farming system consists of a range of resource-saving practices that aims to achieve acceptable high profits and sustained production levels, while minimizing the negative effects of intensive farming and preserving the environment.

(c) Aquaculture:
Aquaponic is a sustainable food production system that combines conventional aquaculture with modern methods of raising aquatic animals such as fish, crayfish or prawns in tanks. In aquaculture, effluents accumulate in the water, increasing toxicity for the fish. This water is led to a hydroponic system where the by-products from the aquaculture are broken down by nitrogen-fixing bacteria, then filtered out by the plants as nutrients, after which the cleaned water is recirculated back to the animals

(d) Smart Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation System
Smart sprinkler and drip irrigation system is an approach to reduce production cost as smart systems use water only when needed. The system also save production time as the irrigation installer has programmed the site data into the smart system, where the controller adjusts the watering schedule based upon local conditions and/or soil moisture and by zone. Agro ecosystem management could lead to better economy for the nation. This could be achieved through investment to reduce poverty and improve production and efficiency. Growth of commercial agriculture could deliver approximately 40 – 50 percent of needed productivity increases, contribute to economic activity, and scale up sustainable practices. But foreign investments, if there is a need for them, must be balanced against fear of land grabs and concerns about the safety of new technologies.

(2) Issues and challenges in economy

Agriculture sector contribution to Malaysia GDP has shown declining trends since 1970 to 2010, from 28.8 to 7.3 percent, respectively. However this phenomenon is normal in the cycle of development. The main contribution towards this trend is the lack of employment in the agriculture sector. This condition is being experienced globally where employment in the agriculture stands at only 37.3 percent of total employment. As for Malaysia, only 13.3 percent of total employment is in agriculture, forestry and fishing. Lack of involvement of youth is one of the reasons for the lack of labour in this sector. Youth are not interested to make agriculture as their career due to “poor man’s sector” mindset. This leads to the increased of foreign workers in the country.
By,
M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Room 1807, Imperial Heritage Hotel,
Bandar Hilir, Melaka,
Malaysia.
(19 RabiulAwal 1439H)

Monday, January 8, 2018

PADDY SUBSIDY IN MALAYSIA

Malaysian paddy and rice industry has always been given special treatment based on the strategic importance of rice as a staple food commodity. This study attempts to simulate the impacts of changes in government intervention policy, namely the fertilizer subsidy on the Malaysian paddy and rice industry using system dynamics model. Simulation result indicates that fertilizer subsidy does give a significant impact to the paddy and rice industry. Fertilizer subsidy increases the yield obtained and hence increase paddy production. The removal of fertilizer subsidy decreased the paddy production and consequently, decrease the Self Sufficiency Level (SSL). With the removal of fertilizer subsidy the importation of rice seem inevitable due to the reduction in productions. Meantime the growth in population will further put a pressure to the government to increase importation and to find alternative policies to sustain production and to increase yield.

Rice has been a staple food of the Malaysian community and the paddy/rice industry is considered as a strategic industry and always gets special treatment from the government. Plain Rice, Nasi Lemak, Nasi Goreng, Nasi Kukus, Nasi Kerabu, Nasi Beriyani among popular rice served in Malaysia (See photo next).The rice industry is heavily regulated because of its social, political and economic importance. In 2009 apart from being the main source of food, it also provides the livelihood to 172,000 paddy farmers in the country. Land utilization for paddy production is currently at 674,928 hectares which is 76 percent in Peninsular Malaysia (515,657 ha) while in East Malaysia of Sarawak and Sabah accounted for 18 percent (118,919 ha) and 6 percent (40,352 ha) of the total area hectareage respectively. The complexity of the paddy/rice industry makes planning and policy formulation is not an easy task. For example the instability in rice prices in world market which occur in early 1970, middle of 1980 and recently in 2008 give a big negative impact to the industry. Besides, paddy/rice industry is also the most highly protected industry in the country. There are three types of government interventions, these are: import restriction or quota, fertilizer subsidies and price supports. With trade liberalization, the allowable policy instruments to continue supporting and subsidizing the industry will be limited. Thus, it will have some impact to the industry if the trade liberalization is fully implemented. The changes in the government policy such as the removal of fertilizer subsidy for paddy production due to trade liberalization may give negative impacts to the paddy/rice industry.

This scenario may lead to the reduction in rice production, decreased in the case of self sufficiency level (SSL) and increase in import. This study attempts to simulate the impacts of changes in government intervention policy, namely the Fertilizer Subsidy on the Malaysian paddy and rice industry using system dynamics model. Studies have shown that inputs subsidies such as fertilizer help to maintain the productivity of the paddy farm. For example rice producers in India continued to benefit from high government subsidies on inputs in particular fertilizers and irrigation, but also from procurement at minimum support prices. These subsidies lead to the increase in production. Similarly supporting elements ranging from provision of agricultural inputs for rice production such as increasing fertilizer supply, provision of good quality seed, credit with low interest rate played significant role in providing basic support to increase productivity, improving rice quality and minimizing losses in Indonesia.  All these intervention contributed greatly to Indonesia’s self sufficiency in paddy and rice production. Similarly as above indicate that among the factors affecting the increasing gap between production and consumption of rice include input subsidies, credit programs, guaranteed price, distribution of coupons, and the importing of rice using foreign exchange valued at a special cheap rate allocated for food.

Reference above conducted a study on the Indonesia rice supply performance in trade liberalization era. The objective of the study was to analyze the impact of free trade and its consequences to the Indonesian rice economy. They used simultaneous regression analysis (two-stage least square method) to analyze the impact of free trade to the rice economy. They found that removal of import tariff and government involvement will significantly reduce producer surplus. Reference [6] conducted a study on maize trade liberalization versus fertilizer subsidies in Tanzania. They used computable general equilibrium model (CGE) in order to evaluate two policy measures meant to stimulate growth and crop production in Tanzania. The simulation results indicate that fertilizer subsidies promote cash production and a more land intensive production pattern while maize trade liberalization, on the other hand, stimulates food crops and land extensive production processes. In contrast, as the indicated that the fertilizer subsidy is not a key determinant of the use of fertilizer in paddy cultivation. The regression results from this study indicated that changes in the prices of fertilizer and paddy do not have a significant effect on fertilizer usage, which points to the fact that the fertilizer subsidy is not a key determinant of the use of fertilizer in paddy cultivation. The study also found that there is a relatively higher correlation between fertilizer usage and paddy price than between fertilizer usage and fertilizer price. These findings suggest that the fertilizer subsidy could be withdrawn gradually over time for future paddy farming in Malaysia. Thanks...
By,
M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Taman Bandar BAru UDA,
Johor Bahru,
Johor,
Malaysia.
(18 RabiulAwal 1439H)